In the complex landscape of divorce, estate, and real estate litigation, every detail carries significant weight. Real estate appraisals, with their unique complexities, can critically influence the litigation process.  This article spotlights a particularly consequential aspect of these reports: the designation of clients and intended users.  Analyzed through the lens of the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP), we aim to underscore the importance of these designations, especially within the context of litigation.

Understanding USPAP

The Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice, or USPAP, forms the foundation of professional appraisal practice in the U.S.  Developed by the Appraisal Standards Board (ASB) of The Appraisal Foundation, USPAP sets the ethical and performance standards for appraisers across the country.

USPAP on Client and Intended User Designations

USPAP provides explicit guidelines on identifying the client and the intended users in an appraisal report.  The client is the party who directly engages the appraiser, while the intended users are additional parties who are meant to utilize the appraisal report.  According to the USPAP Standards Rule 2-2(viii), the report must explicitly identify “the intended users by name or type.”

The Crucial Role of the Client

The designation of the client is not merely procedural; it carries significant implications.  Here are a few key points:

  1. Communication:  The client, being the party directly engaging the appraiser, is privy to open discussions about the appraisal report.  This encourages direct dialogue, allows for the clarification of uncertainties, and fosters a detailed understanding of the appraisal process.
  2. Scope of Work:  The client outlines the scope of the appraisal assignment.  They provide necessary information, specify the property rights to be appraised, and identify the report’s intended use.  However, it should be emphasized that they do not influence the value conclusion.  The appraiser’s role is to maintain impartiality and independence throughout the appraisal process.
  3. Confidentiality:  The client enjoys a unique position of confidentiality.  Appraisers are obligated to maintain client confidentiality, ensuring that sensitive information shared during the appraisal process remains protected.

Determining the Client

Identifying the client for an appraisal is a strategic decision that requires careful deliberation.  In numerous situations, it is advantageous for the attorney to serve as the client.  This arrangement enables the attorney to participate in open discussions about the appraisal report, shielded by the appraiser-client confidentiality norms.  It also allows the attorney to delve into the specifics of the appraisal process, ask pertinent questions, and ensures that the appraisal report meets the case’s requirements.

However, there may be circumstances where it’s beneficial to designate additional or alternative clients.  The specifics of the case significantly influence in client designation.  For instance, in amicable divorces or estate matters involving multiple heirs, designating all parties as clients can promote transparency and cooperation.

Client comfort is another crucial consideration.  Some clients may wish to engage more in the process or need a better understanding of the appraisal.  Including them as clients in such situations can be beneficial.

Legal obligations also play a role, particularly in cases involving trusts or fiduciaries.  Designating the trustee or fiduciary as the client aligns with their legal obligation to protect the beneficiaries’ interests and provides assurance that the appraisal process is handled professionally and ethically.

The Power of Intended Users

In the context of litigation, intended users extend beyond the client who directly engages the appraiser.  Additional parties, like opposing counsel, the court, or a government agency, may need to use the appraisal report.  USPAP emphasizes the importance of identifying these parties as intended users for several reasons:

  1. Legitimate Reliance on the Report:  When parties are explicitly identified as intended users, they can legitimately rely on the appraisal report.  This is particularly crucial in litigation, where the appraisal report can significantly influence decisions and outcomes.
  2. Compliance with USPAP:  USPAP’s Confidentiality Section requires appraisers to maintain the confidentiality of the client’s information.  However, it permits the sharing of information with identified intended users.  By clearly identifying these parties, the appraiser ensures compliance with these ethical guidelines.
  3. Credibility and Acceptance:  Proper identification of intended users can also enhance the credibility of the appraisal report.  When a report clearly identifies its intended users, it signifies that the report was prepared with their needs and interests in mind.  This clarity can lead to greater acceptance of the report by the identified parties.

Recognizing the importance of the designation of intended users in an appraisal report is crucial to successfully navigating the complex landscape of real estate litigation.


In the intricate realm of divorce, estate, and real estate litigation, the importance of designating the client and intended users in a real estate appraisal cannot be overstated.  Their roles and responsibilities, as outlined by the Uniform Standards of Professional Appraisal Practice (USPAP), significantly impact the appraisal process.  The client has a unique role that influence the direction and scope of the appraisal, while the intended users, identified based on the client’s understanding, can legitimately use and rely on the appraisal report.  However, it’s paramount to note that while clients and intended users hold pivotal roles, they do not have influence over the value conclusions of the appraisal report, ensuring that appraisers remain unbiased and independent professionals.

Whether you’re an attorney requiring professional appraisal services, or an individual navigating the complexities of estate or divorce litigation, an unbiased and independent appraisal can provide the clarity and confidence you need.  As an experienced and impartial real estate appraiser, I’m here to guide you through the appraisal process, ensuring your specific needs are met while adhering to the highest professional standards.  If you require appraisal services or have any questions about the process, don’t hesitate to get in touch.  Let’s work together to deliver a comprehensive, accurate, and ethical appraisal report that serves you unique needs.

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